The Sea Buckthorn (L. Hippophae rhamnoides) a compact deciduous shrub (2 to 4m high) is native to the colder climes of Northern Europe and Asia, it grows in poor soil mediums and can tolerate temperatures well below freezing. The bark is rough in texture grey brown to black with a greyish green canopy, leaves are alternate, narrow and lanceolate with silver undersides and pale green upper surfaces.

The Sea buckthorn has oval to roundish fruits ranging from pale yellow to dark orange, these contain high amounts of vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, flavonoids, health-beneficial fatty acids and high amounts of vitamin B12. In Scandinavia the benefits of consuming Sea buckthorn fruit has long been known as it probably has in other parts of the world however, cultivating this shrub although uncomplicated requires a little thought.

Sea buckthorn fruit

The shrub is ‘dioecious’ meaning that male and female flowers grow on individual trees and the sex of seedlings can only be determined at the first flowering, which normally occurs after three years of growth. The difference between the sexes is as follows; the male flowers have from four to six apetalous flowers, whilst the female has only one apetalous flower containing one ovary and one ovule. Fertilisation is created via wind pollination, hence both male and female plants should be in close proximity.

Sea buckthorn plants can be easily obtained as garden centres and nurseries have them in abundance, but they are saplings approximately 2 years old and ascertaining whether they are male or female is extremely difficult as they have yet to flower. Of course the containers in which the plants are housed have labels describing what they are, but it is highly unlikely to include the sex. One could ask the attendant as to the plant’s origin to determine whether it is male or female, they should have this information available if they are reputable traders, but more often than not they are unable to provide an answer. Hence purchasing Sea buckthorn plants is a bit of a lottery.

Sea buckthorn develops an extensive root system, the roots live in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Frankia bacteria, the roots also transform insoluble organic and mineral matters from the soil into more soluble states and vegetative reproduction of the plants occurs rapidly via root suckers for example. The bonsai version of the Sea buckthorn in the ‘literati’ (Bunjin gi) style shown below is 5 years old and has yet to produce apetalous flowers in order to determine its sex.

Photographs were taken 1st April 2021

The main reason for this phenomenon is partly due to heavy pruning it has received. However, in late spring of 2020 vegetative reproduction rapidly appeared with several new plants protruding up through the soil medium and in July of that year the plant was taken out of its pot and all the new shoots were carefully removed and replanted in the yellow container and left to fend for themselves.

Winter of 2020 was quite hard with plenty of snow constantly thawing and freezing with more snow build up. In previous winters all bonsai were covered with hessian for added protection, but last year they were left uncovered, hence they were subjected to a hard time. In March 2021 the soil medium in the yellow pot was a block of ice and the chance of survival for these yearling plants seemed minimal. It is now April, the soil medium has thawed out and the young plants have survived; to say the Sea buckthorn is ‘resilient’ is very apt considering the hardships it must endure.

The next question is, what will happen to these young sea buckthorn plants as they are surplus to requirements? One will be kept as a backup should some catastrophe befall the ‘literati’ bonsai, the remainder will be given away. You might ask the question of why not take them into the wild and replant them, sadly the answer is no, because (a) there is no permission to do so, (b) soil pH would be incompatible to the plant’s needs and (c) they would be subjected to the onslaught of human and animal activity; until next time BW, Nik.

‘Patience is a virtue’

It’s that time of the year for some to commence their bonsai horticulture labours, but for others snow still remains, the north of Scandinavia is still going through the remnants of winter and just when the ground was beginning to thaw, along comes more snow Monday 05/04/2021. Nonetheless, buds are beginning to break on some of the trees in the collection; Birch (Betula) and Sea buckthorn (Hippophae) and progress in re-potting some trees that need it is underway, but that is the sum total thus far.

The main reason for the slow progress is the dreaded affects of (MgC12) magnesium chloride that was discussed in the last post ‘It’s an ill Wind’. Until the snow has completely dissipated the machines cannot sweep the roads, hence any attempt to prepare and prune is futile; work that will become a set back therefore, one has to be patient till at least the end of April, but much depends on the weather because as stated it is unpredictable.

Once the highways, roads and pavements have been swept and the dust particles have settled, the area where the trees are housed can be cleaned to remove all residue, then attention can be focussed on the plants. The container or pot in which the tree is housed is placed in a plastic bag (cling film or plastic wrap is an alternative) and sealed around the trunk with electrical tape, this is to avoid any water containing (MgC12) particles from entering the bag and contaminating the soil when the trunk/s and branches are washed. It is important to do this because if the soil is contaminated, the possibility of necrosis appearing is greatly improved.

Having just read the above paragraph you are now thinking “hold on a minute, if (MgC12) is on the branches and trunk will it not be also in the soil?” – a good question and you are correct in assuming this and the answer is yes it will. Magnesium and chloride are essential chemicals needed for healthy growth and the soil medium will already contain these but, a balance has to be maintained, it is the amount induced or exposed to or lack thereof which is the problem.

The previous post ‘It’s an ill Wind’ explains the symptoms and results of excessive exposure to (MgC12) resulting in necrosis, which is the degeneration of cellular tissue, that weakens the plant making it susceptible to attack from Biotic diseases; insects and fungi. Necrosis is an Abiotic infection caused by human activity and the excessive use of chemicals, the dried out particles become airborne, transmitted via the wind and can effect plants at any time anywhere.

As a result foliage is covered in dust reducing the plant or tree’s ability to photosynthesise properly affecting the transportation of sugars from the leaves to the roots retarding the plants health, hence it is prudent to check on a plant’s condition. A useful tool in cleaning foliage, branches and trunks is a pressure sprayer (shown below) use distilled water with the sprayer’s nozzle set to medium fine and medium pressure, until next time, BW, Nik.

Pressure sprayer

‘It’s an ill Wind’…

Winter is waining, the long dark days and nights are drawing to a close, the once crisp white snow now wears a dirty grey/black mantel of dust as it slowly melts away, but let us not be too hasty to shed those warm layers needed to combat the cold for the weather can change its mind as it is apt to do.

It is reassuring to know that winter’s demise is imminent here in Scandinavia (although its return is inevitable) but, with the coming of spring the problems begin again for example, Biotic and Abiotic disease. The following is an extract from the new book…. Taiga Bonsai (Simplifying The Art)

Biotic diseases are caused by living organisms, fungi, bacteria and pathogens left by viral infected insects for example, the ‘Red band needle blight’ (Dothistroma) that affects conifers mostly pines, causing needle loss eventually killing the tree. Ash dieback affects Ash trees and is caused by the fungus (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) which blocks the tree’s water transport system causing leaf loss and ultimately dieback of the tree’s apex or crown.

Horse chestnut canker a bacterium species known as (Pseudomonas syringae pv.) causes extensive bleeding areas on tree stems. (Phytophthora austrocedri) affects Junipers causing dieback of foliage, stem and collar lesions and eventually death.

Biotic diseases usually appear on random plants but, can effect different plants with various levels of severity often with visible signs of disease for example, fluffy masses of mould, orange pustules and round leaf spots, wet or water-soaked lesions and irregular shaped leaf spots. Viruses often cause cankers and irregular colour changes such as mosaic patterns on leaves or unusual foliage colours for example, reddening of the leaves. Nematodes, a microscopic worm are also classified as a biotic disease causing root rots and irregular root growth. Arguably biotic diseases are part and parcel of nature’s rich tapestry something we have to accept.

Abiotic diseases are the result of non – living causes, the result of human activity – herbicides, pollution, an excess or lack of nutrients that plants require for growth. For example, Chloride (C1-) and Magnesium (Mg+2) are both essential nutrients important for normal growth. However, excessive concentrations of these nutrients may harm a plant with chloride being responsible for foliage damage as opposed to magnesium.

High concentrations of MgC12 ions in the soil may be toxic insomuch that they are able to effect and alter water relationships meaning the plant can not accumulate water and nutrients naturally. The effect of chloride in the conducting system causes an accumulation of necrosis in leaves or needles and where dieback first occurs, leaves are weakened or killed, which can lead to the death of of a tree.

A common cause of necrosis is brown, dead or wilted leaf tips and yellowing of older leaves. If this is the case, then the plant should be removed and cleaned immediately by washing the whole tree including the root ball with distilled water and the decaying foliage removed; the container or pot should also be cleaned and the plant re-potted in a fresh soil medium.

Necrosis on Conifers and Deciduous

When dried out particles of (MgC12) become airborne they travel great distances, contaminating all they come in contact with especially trees and shrubs be they of natural proportions or bonsai and also back into the soil where they react causing chloride toxicity. Remember the line in the opening paragraph “the once crisp white snow now wears a dirty grey/black mantel of dust” this is the residue of (MgC12).

Symptoms associated with exposure to de-icing, salt sprays, aerosols or road dust differ from root absorption, the side of the tree facing the road may exhibit more damage and foliage will have surface deposits of salt crystals or dust. These usually appear in a distinct pattern affecting other plants that are in close proximity.

One of the major causes of excessive concentrations of (MgC12) is due to the de-icing of highways, streets, roads and pavements via the use of granulated magnesium chloride (MgC12) applied during the winter months that is different to halite road salt. (sodium chloride NaC1) Liquid (MgC12) solutions are also applied to non-paved roads during spring and summer months for dust suppression.

Pest and disease problems in bonsai are often the result of more than one cause, these are referred to as complexes for example, aphids and leafhoppers often spread various plant diseases in the process of feeding. Weak plants in abiotic conditions (nutrient deficient soils) are more susceptible to attack by various diseases and insects. In such cases it is not enough to simply treat a tree with pesticide or fungicide, all cases of the complex should be addressed to ensure good health and vitality in the tree’s development.

Magnesium chloride according to the powers that be, this chemical be it in granulated or liquid form is mandatory for de-icing and suppression of dust. But, when the snow has gone and the roads and pathways have dried, (MgC12) still remains on the surfaces and when the machines start sweeping these areas, the dust as stated becomes airborne – an ill wind. The area where my bonsai trees are housed is open to the elements and prone to (MgC12) residue; to say that it is a pain in the neck to have to be constantly cleaning, is an understatement. Arguably there should be a consultation regarding (MgC12) usage; until next time BW, Nik.


“The road is long with many a winding turn”

Having been absent for some considerable time and my sincere apologies for this, but my attention was focussed on more pressing matters taking me down roads, that were complicated, tedious and often boring. But these are the journeys we are compelled to take during life’s long learning curve regardless of what entity we are engaged in.

Arguably the problem is that knowledge in many fields often fails to be updated and starting my journey into bonsai horticulture in the mid 1970s there was very little knowledge available. Today there is a wealth of information to be found via the world wide web and of authors whom dedicate their experiences to this horticultural art form.

However, a message has an expressive language depending on the properties and ideas it contains. Many written works either delve too deeply into the subject which can cause confusion often leading to a loss of interest, whilst some barely scratch the surface. Therefore, it was felt that a new book was needed, one that slotted between giving the reader a clear and concise message easy to comprehend and one that would include other relative topics rarely discussed. Here at Taiga Bonzai the aim is to unravel the complexities by simplification, because bonsai horticulture has changed much since its commencement in 6th century China.

My first book on bonsai was sent for publication in the autumn of 2018 but to date knowledge of its progress has not been forthcoming, possibly due to unknown factors although constant efforts were made as to the status quo and possibly due to the current pandemic situation. Therefore, a decision was made to write a second edition adding more up-to-date content. The book “Taiga Bonzai – simplifying the art – revised edition” (page count 200) was completed in December 2020. Feedback from the many followers of Taiga Bonzai suggest that this new written work should be available as an E book to avoid a repeat of the recent publishing experience; as to cost, this has yet to be determined.

In the next article to be posted we look at the end of winter and the problems it creates in its wake.

Until next time BW, Nik.

Pinus strobus radiata (Monterey pine step 1. May 2019)

Now is the time of year for a brief excursion to see what potential material if any, is available and low and behold a 64cm 4 needle eastern white pine was on offer for under 15€ a bargain considering that most members of the white pine family usually have needles in bundles of 5, rarely in 3 or 4; hence these command a higher price.

Originally from eastern North America white pines can now be found world-wide mainly as a timber source due to their rapid growth. The white pine family subgenus Strobus has several varieties including the Nana, Aurea and Macopin groups. It prefers well-drained or sandy soils and humid climates, but can also grow in boggy areas and rocky highlands. It is said to be a hardy tree (zone 3) withstanding temperature around -30c, but this for mature trees young trees need to be protected against frost damage.

On young trees the bark is relatively smooth and grey in colour with branches spaced approximately every 10 to 15cm on the trunk with 5-6 branches appearing like spokes on a wagon wheel. And because of this branch configuration, the Monterey pine according to some purists is not a suitable candidate for bonsai.

But nothing ventured nothing gained, this ‘ugly duckling’ has been transferred to a wooden box to allow for root expansion, fertilised and the heavier branches were removed to encourage development of the thinner branches.

Monteray pine

For some styling, pruning and wiring in one session can be done on some species, but applying the same directive to a 4 needle white pine can be deemed an act of ebullience as opposed to patience, because of the amount of stress the tree has to endure, requiring a longer period to recover. This white pine will have no further work done until the candles have developed however, in the meantime a potential design is suggested.


Monteray pine 2

If we look at the tree we denote movement in the main trunk from soil level upwards, which can be enhanced by bending it down from point ‘A’ to point ‘B’. Then from point ‘B’ to point ‘C’ a second and third bend can be applied sending the trunk slightly to the back then forward and right bringing the apex back over the centre to avoid the ubiquitous ‘S’ shape. To achieve this directive the main trunk has to be wrapped in raffia with supporting wires added to the proposed bend’s outside radius, (red lines) then taped and the bending wires attached.

The last part of the exercise will be to prune in necessary and wire into position the side branches, as for the right hand secondary trunk’s position and styling this will be determined once the left side has been styled into position.
Further updates on this tree’s progress will be posted, until next time BW, N.

Expansion clamp design and construction


In the article ‘Wiring practices part 2B’ it was mentioned that the twin trunks of my mountain ash/rowan, Sorbus aucuparia were trying to fuse together, which would have spoilt the overall design. (image a) Hence a 3cm block of wood was wedged in place to keep them apart, purely as a temporary measure. (image b)

Rowan red wires & wood

Having given some thought to the problem 2 options came to mind, (1) to use 4 heavy guy wires (red lines) to keep the trunks apart, but where to attach them – they cannot be attached to the plastic container, because (a) the amount of tension and force required would distort it. (b) The present angle is too acute and the wires would slip down as soon as tension is applied damaging the bark.

Alternatively build a large box around the container and attach the wires to that, this was also rejected, because to reduce the steep angle the wires would require a minimum extension of 45cm on either side resulting in an overall measurement of 135cm container 45 + 45 + 45. Moreover, using wires to keep the trunks apart creates tension in the length of the trunks as opposed to force centred at one small area, hence the decision was option (2) design and construct a small expansion clamp.

The following image shows the ‘new’ expansion clamp in situ, a device that can be adjusted by periodically turning the handles giving equal force to both trunks. Below this are two more images showing plan A & B followed by a tutorial on how to make this clamp


Expasion clamp in situ

Expansion clamp A

Plan B. overview

Expansion clamp construction

Before we begin the tutorial, Europe uses the metric system as are the dimensions given here however, there are countries that use the imperial format, the reason for this is because threaded bars have different threads for example, UNC (Unified National Coarse Thread) and UNF (Unified National Fine Thread) therefore, when making threads they have to correspond to the type of threaded bar being used.

The tools required for the project include: a drill press as it will give accurate alignment when drilling; if access to such is not available a cordless drill can be used, but ensure that all components are aligned properly and the drill bit is perpendicular to the worked object.

Drill bits 3mm for pilot holes and holes in the back plates, 4mm drill for the 4 x 5mm threaded bars, 5mm drill for the 6mm bars, 6mm drill for plate B. A file, Phillips (star pointed) screw driver, punch, ruler, marker, masking tape, hammer, vice, electrical tape, plastic shrink wrap (optional), hacksaw, 4mm & 6mm taps + holder.

Materials are: 30cm x 4mm x 3 cm aluminium flat bar, (steel can be used)

3 x 12cm x 5mm and 24 cm x 6mm threaded bar, soft rubber foam and adhesive,

2 x 6mm hexagonal threaded barrel nuts and 8 x 1.5 x 3mm bolts with nuts + washers. Note: (threaded bar is usually sold in 1metre lengths) all these materials are available from supermarkets and hardware stores.

Step 1. Cut the aluminium bar into two 12cm lengths and the remaining 6cm in half (3cm) and file away all rough edges. Tape the two 12cm lengths together ensuring they are properly aligned, measure, mark and centre punch the holes as shown above, then drill out the 4 holes using the 3mm pilot drill. Separate the 2 x 12cm bars and select one to be plate A the other to be plate B. Tape the 2 x 3cm back plates to plate B ensuring alignment is correct then measure mark and centre punch 4 holes and drill through using the 3mm pilot drill as shown below.

Back plates

Separate plate B from the back plates making sure you mark which back plate is on the left and which is on the right and the way they were first fitted, this important because if they are incorrectly placed the holes will not be in unison and the plates when bolted on will be out of alignment.

Step 2. Re-assemble plates A and B and ensure alignment is correct which is easily attained by inserting the 3mm pilot drill into the holes, then tape them together. Using the 4mm drill bit, drill through the inner holes in both plates, with the 5mm drill repeat the process on the outer holes. Separate the two plates and on plate B only use the 6mm drill to widen the 2 outer holes, this is to allow the 6mm threaded bars to fit snugly and turn in the recess provided by the back plates.

Step 3. Using the 5mm tap carefully thread the inner holes in bars A and B, then cut one length of the 12 cm x 5mm threaded bars into 4 equal lengths (3cm) and file off all rough edges, test fit by screwing these bars into the holes of the plates to check for alignment if all is is fine remove and set aside. Using the 6mm tap cut a thread in the outer holes of bar A ensuring that the tap is straight and perpendicular, again this is important because if these threaded bars are out of alignment the clamp will not function properly.

Step 4. The 2 x 12cm x 6mm threaded bars need one end on each to be filed down so that the bar is able to turn easily without scarring the recess, regardless of whether one uses aluminium or steel. Remove any rough edges on the other end and insert it/them into the hexagonal barrel nuts so that the ends are flush with the outer surface of the nut.

Measure and mark the exact centre on the surface of the barrel nut and make an indentation with the punch, check the alignment, if it is out use another side of the nut. Wind some masking tape on the protruding end of the bar close to the barrel nut as this will stop it from turning when you drill through. Using the 3mm pilot drill carefully drill through the nut and inserted bar, change drill bit to the 4mm and widen the hole then repeat with the 5mm; remove all burs. Insert the 2 x 12cm x 5mm threaded bar into the barrel nuts and wind electrical tape around the bare threaded ends.

Step 5. Assembly, bolt on the back plates, insert the 4 x 3.5cm x 5mm bars or lugs into A and B ensuring they face in opposite directions, wind electrical tape over the threads and cover with shrink wrap, to stop any hard contacted with the trees’s bark. Shrink wrap although optional is perfect for this kind of project. Finally, cut some foam rubber and glue it using contact adhesive to the areas between the lugs as a cushion for the 2 trunks.


finished clamp

This expansion clamp was specifically designed for my Sorbus aucuparia having two trunks each 3.25 cm in diameter, but can be adapted for larger or thinner trunks by widening or closing the gap between blue lugs as the case may be. Of course new holes will have to drilled and tapped to accommodate any alterations.

The advantage of this clamp is that it is adjustable able to do more than a static block of wood can. The clamp will stay on the tree for a period of two more growing seasons, periodically turning the handles to increase the gap between the two trunks.

Regarding maintenance concerning the bare threaded bars, these were sprayed with WD40 and molybdenum grease was inserted into the back plate recesses to reduce wear and tear; alternatively petroleum jelly (vaseline) can be used if the former is not to hand.

You are free to use my design or in part thereof should you wish to make this clamp, the materials aluminium flat bar, hexagonal barrel nuts, 5mm and 6mm threaded bars cost under 20€; the 3mm bolts, nuts, and washers had been purchased previously. (1,50€) Naturally making only one clamp does leave surplus material, but fret not, it can be used for other projects for example, bending clamps as described in the article ‘Making bonsai clamps’. (8th October 2016) Until next time, BW, N.



WIRING PRACTICES (Part III – new wire as opposed to reclaimed)


“When wiring bonsai always apply ‘new’ wire not ‘used’ because (a) used wire has lost its original properties and is inadequate (b) re-using old used wire is seen as a niggardly practice”

Well the bonsai outlets would say that for obvious reasons, but what if you are a student existing on a pitiful grant. A pensioner whose allowance does not keep pace with inflation or someone having a career change, where finance has to be kept under strict control. Moreover, claiming that wire once used will loose its properties is incorrect as many bonsai enthusiasts regardless of their financial status, use reclaimed wire because it is more cost effective especially if their collection is large.


Reclaiming wire

In the last century (1970 to late 1980s) an abundance of wire (copper/aluminium) was available, reclaimed from old telecommunication systems, industrial electrical wiring complexes, house-hold appliances and many other sources. But with the advancement in technology and the digital age, sources have dwindled, yet there is still sufficient to be had providing one knows where to look for example, scrap yards, recycling plants and from those whom reclaim wire for re-sale.

Reclaiming wire can be an arduous process as the core/s has/have to be stripped from the coating, achieved either by fire or manually. But using fire as a method of removal especially from old Polyvinyl chloride cables, (PVC) harmful quantities of dioxins a group of highly toxic chemicals are emitted, which if inhaled can have serious repercussions to one’s health. Moreover, it is not advisable to do this if ones neighbours are in close proximity and to avoid repercussions, it is far better to do it manually which is safer and relatively easier.

But surely stripping wire is a long tedious process? To the novice it may seem the case however, equipment is available from simple ‘hand’ operated home-made devices to motorised machines, here are a few examples to give you some idea.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TuFn2dcU2qI https://www.youtube.com

/watch?v=TL9UhDDaKo0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I7IyxcS2Y10


Wire used for bonsai

Usually a single flexible cylindrical strand of copper or coated aluminium, is formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate and is available in various sizes expressed as gauges. This single solid strand or core consists of one piece of metal that provides mechanical ruggedness and because its surface area is less than multi-core wire, exposure to corrosives and the environment is reduced.

Wire produced via this manufacturing process has what is called ‘shape memory’ and what happens within the material at the nanoscale of atoms and molecules is different from what is occurring on the surface. Therefore, if a piece of wire is bent around a branch the internal crystalline structure is deformed and will remain in its given shape.

Shape memory alloys including copper and aluminium are able to change between two solid crystalline states referred to as ‘austenite’ and ‘martensite’, at low temperatures they are in the form of ‘martensite’ and easy to bend, but when subjected to high temperatures they become ‘austenite’; making the material harder. Therefore, when preparing reclaimed wire for bonsai, the annealing process is needed to change the crystalline structure prompting the object to revert back to its original state.



Copper and aluminium wire have different temperatures that change their crystalline state which has to be controlled to maintain their ‘martensite’ properties for example.

The melting point of copper is 1083 degrees centigrade but, the annealing temperature is between 700 to 800C. Copper is a good heat conductor and as we are only concerned with this metal in wire form, the process of annealing happens once it glows red. The wire is then removed from the heat source and allowed to cool naturally returning to its ‘martensite’ state and is easily bent into a new shape.

What if we choose to cool the wire quickly, what happens?”

Quenching red hot wire immediately in water, the molecules can retain an ‘austenite’ state making the wire brittle. If the wire is allowed to cool (300 to 400 C) then doused in water it will still retain its malleability, but can be slightly harder. However, much depends on the gauge, thin wire cools quickly as oppose to thick. Therefore, experimentation and using a temperature probe will assist in deciding when to quench the gauge/s you are annealing.

Annealing copper can be achieved several times and as we are only concerned with bonsai wire, rigid control of the process is not mandatory. Nonetheless, constant annealing does have its adverse effect, because the crystalline structure (nanoscale of atoms and molecules) will eventually degrade with oxidation being the most obvious sign.

Aluminium has a melting point of 450 – 560 centigrade although much depends on what additional elements have been added to the alloy to make it harder. Generally speaking, the annealing temperature is between 300 to 350 C for approximately 20 minutes, after which the wire is allowed to cool (approximately 150 C) then immersed in water to retain its ‘martensite’ properties. But as stated before a thinner gauge heats up more quickly than a thicker gauge as does the cooling down.

Moreover, if the temperature of the annealing process is too high, it can cause not only the destruction of the coating applied during original manufacture, but create an ‘austenite’ state making the wire brittle hence, care has to be taken to avoid over heating. Annealing aluminium wire can be done many times, but like copper it will degrade over time.


Heat sources for annealing

These will be discussed momentarily, but first a relevant question. “Is the wire straightened before annealing or after?” Bent or kinked wire is difficult to straighten, especially if held in a shaped position for some time exposed to the elements and attempting to straighten it in this cold state, would not be met with much success.

In addition, when wiring bonsai especially large specimens, long lengths (over a metre) are used, which could be problematic because to anneal properly, the heat source has to be large enough to accommodate its entire length. Far better to fold or coil the wire to reduce the length, then anneal and straighten after; which will be discussed shortly.

There are several heat sources for annealing including, an open fire in the back yard/garden, a barbecue, propane gas torch, kiln or small forge and the domestic oven. However, not everyone has the freedom to choose their preferred heat source, because of (a) environmental restrictions and (b) source and the cost.

Apart from an open fire or propane gas as used by many, another option is an old barbecue one with a working temperature gauge attached. A small one coupled with a bag of briquettes or coals is ideal for annealing copper. Stack the wire heaviest gauge on the bottom building up the pile with smaller gauges on the top. Once the required temperature is reached place the stack on the coals, close the lid and wait; periodically checking for the colour red. You will also need a container of water in situ for cooling.

Aluminium having a lower temperature can be annealed in a domestic oven. Pre-heat the oven to its maximum (normally 350 centigrade) then prepare a baking tray by lining it with 2 sheets of aluminium foil to stop any unwanted residue from contaminating it’s surface. With the temperature reached put the tray in the oven for 20 minutes then remove and allow to cool down, after 10 to 15 minutes put the wire in water to quench it.

If one needs to know more regarding the annealing of alloys, there are several sites on the internet providing more information, this article is only an introduction to annealing.


Straitening the wire

Straightening annealed wire can be achieved by various methods, the easiest form being a cordless drill and piece of wood. To a jig with rollers where the wire is threaded through, to more elaborate expensive machines. (http://subec.se/products/)

Here are a few ‘youtube’ videos where one can see the ease of straightening wire.




As the above information indicates there are several options for straightening wire, the drill and piece of wood being the simplest and cheapest method especially with small gauges. (1 to 2.5mm) But as the gauges increase (3 to 6mm) straightening becomes more difficult due to the tension and force required.

Having given this conundrum considerable thought, the plan at some point is to design and make a simple jig where all gauges (1 to 6mm) can be straightened relatively easy. However, with ‘simplicity’ being the watchword it will have to be cost effective and easy to construct with just a few basic tools. In the meantime a little more research is required. Until next time, BW, N.

Wiring practices (Part II B)



In part 2 ‘A’ we discussed when to wire both coniferous, deciduous and young trees grown from seed in their first year. Other topics were the techniques to bend heavy branches including ‘V’ notching and what happens to the xylem when severe compression and tension are applied. In this discussion we look at an actual wiring project.

Wiring application

When attempting to wire any part of a tree it is advisable to test the resistance of the section in question, because this gives an approximation of what gauge to use. This is achieved by supporting the tree at the base then gently bending it to the right, left, forward and back for a few minutes thus, making the xylem more pliable. The wire is wound around the branch (not the branch around the wire) normally at a 45° angle starting from the bottom going upwards. However, all trees are different some grow quicker than others hence the wire coils may be closer or further apart depending on what one is trying to achieve. The image shown below is an example of how a tree can be wired.
how to wire a tree.part.2.b

Wiring older trees

Trees that are 3 to 4 years will have lignified and the heartwood will have hardened, thus bending requires a little more thought and preparation. The candidate for this experiment has a diameter of approximately 15mm at soil level, a 7/8mm diameter tip or apex and is approximately 150cm in height, which would be normal for a deciduous sapling of this age, but for our purposes it has been reduced to 24cm.

The sample tree (below) is uninteresting due to the lack of movement therefore, we are going to apply bends to the right, left, to the back and front and fan out the branches so that they will eventually come close to the trunk to give a 3D appearance. (the 3 small grey squares represent back branches that will be reconfigured later)
Tree showing bends part.2.b

No doubt the critics will say this directive is incorrect, branches should not be near the trunk as it mars the viewer’s eyeline taking away the emphasis of the trunk which is considered the most important factor in bonsai. Nonetheless, the argument here is between something that has a look of realism as opposed to one of reality.

To explain further after the Chinese introduced the art of bonsai (originally named Penjing also known as Penzai) to the Japanese in the 7th century, the latter produced specimens in their own style. (Zen buddhist) Where focus of attention was centred on a tree’s trunk and branches were not permitted to cross it, but this created a flat 2D image unacceptable to western bonsai enthusiasts because it did not represent reality. A tree as it grows will produce branches radiating the entire circumference; a natural phenomenon.

Furthermore, the American horticulturist, teacher, author, and master bonsai cultivator John Yoshio Naka considered to be the founding father of western style bonsai stated that in order to create a natural look as would be found in nature,”don’t turn your tree into a bonsai – turn your bonsai into a tree.”

Our specimen tree has undergone the flexibility test and has been securely wired starting with the heaviest gauge then moving down through the sizes as we work up the tree. The gauges used are shown below.

wired tree part 2.b
The following image a rough drawn sketch gives an indication of how the specimen would appear after the wiring process is completed showing the back branches marked as ‘Bb’. All the fine branches were wired using 1.5mm and 1mm gauge accordingly.
Wired deciduous tree

To create a natural look the branches were bent down to give the impression of age and the thinner branches fanned out and levelled to enhance the foliage. At this stage the trunk is still visible (a to b) however, as the tree grows and develops more shoots and leaves, these will come across the trunk, (c) and at the apex the trunk will hardly be visible.

This example is for a deciduous tree that arguably have straighter trunks often with gentle curves, but there are exceptions as in ‘wind swept’ (Fukinagashi) ‘twin trunk’ (Sokan) ‘multiple trunk’ (Kabudachi) or even Literati (Bunjingi) styles. But regardless of the species, the wiring process is the same, the only major difference is that deciduous are wired in the autumn after leaf fall when it is easier to visualise shape and form; whereas conifers being ‘evergreen’ require more patience when wiring to avoid trapping the needles.

Wiring mature trees

Many trees 8 years and upwards can be found in some unusual places including, derelict industrial sites, garden hedgerows as well as from the wild. Many will have interesting forms that have been shaped by the forces of nature, the only task remaining is pruning and wiring the branches.

However, if a potential specimen is found with a 4 to 6cm diameter trunk at ground level, its height will probably be in excess of 2m and applying bends using the heaviest gauge wire (6mm) is extremely difficult, especially if the tree is deciduous because of the denseness of the cellular structure. The only way to create shape (referred to as movement) is to use the techniques mentioned earlier ‘V’ notching etc, but there is an easier approach achieved by reducing the tree’s height to a node or bud that when grows will form the new apex.
Rowan reducing the height

The tree pictured above is a twin trunk (Sokan) rowan or mountain ash Sorbus aucuparia rescued from a derelict industrial site due for refurbishment, its original height was over 2m but reduced to 70cm allowing new leaders (1 for each trunk) to grow; height now is 90cm. In spring the branches will be pruned back to encourage new growth. (The temporary padded block of wood ‘green circle’ is to keep the two trunks separated, a new clamp is being designed to facilitate this purpose)

As stated before conifers have more flexibility and can be wired once the proposed section has been tested, if the area once wired fails to hold its shape even after applying the heavy bending technique shown below we can resort to using guy wires as opposed to ‘V’ notching or other applications.


But when using guy wires we have to remember that creating a force in one direction leads to an opposing force, in part one of this article there is an image of a Scots pine and to save you time looking for it, it is repeated below.
Wiring a goose neck pine

This ‘goose neck’ pine has 4 main guy wires attached to both tree and box equalising the tension applied, the top section 5. has been wired in the normal way, but is held down with looping wire 6. to the branch below. The black patches are pieces of felt used to protect the bark from the wire.

Wiring trees can be easy or complicated depending on your approach, the task itself regardless of size just requires a little fore thought and patience. Because at the end of the day it is you who must be satisfied; you are the artist. Until next time when part III of this article (new wire as opposed to reclaimed) is published. BW, N.


Wiring practices (part 2 A)



Wiring practices is an important subject that requires detailed explanation to make the message clear and precise and considering the amount of pages required, (10-12) which in reality is too long for a single post, (5 pages max) it will be divided into 2 sections A & B. apologies for any disappointment caused, but it is imperative that what is written covers the topic thoroughly especially for the beginner.

In part 1. a discussion was held on climate zones and the temperatures that effect the fauna endemic to those regions in addition, shrubs or trees from warmer climes can be cultivated in colder regions providing they are kept in warm temperatures during the winter months. Also discussed was the difference between softwood (conifers) and hardwood (deciduous) and how their cellular structure differs in the amount of flexibility within a particular species; Scots pine Pinus sylvestris a conifer very pliable and a Japanese maple Acer palmatum extremely rigid.

Bending or pre-stressing

Continuing on from part 1., a tree pre-stresses its trunk and branches quite naturally as it has to combat the forces of nature, more than 90% of a tree’s cells are long thin- walled tubes closely packed together, arranged along the direction of the trunk or branch.

Their function is to transport the nutrients and water from the leaves (Phloem) and roots (Sapwood) respectively. They also provide support because, no matter which way a trunk or branch is bent, the internal forces always act parallel to the cells and are able to adapt to tension and compression. In addition, because the cells are hollow, the tree’s trunk and branches can be thicker as opposed to it being a solid mass.


However, when bending the cellular structure of the xylem becomes disrupted meaning the outer radius of the bend will be in tension whilst the inner radius is held in compression. With conifers this is not so much of a problem but with deciduous, the chances are that the branch will either snap at the weakest point or actually break away from the trunk if not supported.

In addition, if a bend is too severe, the cortex may splinter or break resulting in damage to the phloem and a damaged phloem is not just open to attack from Lepidoptera and Fungi, it can disrupt the movement of nutrients. Therefore any bending should be done in stages to eradicate such problems and this can take several growing seasons depending on the species.

Another point worth considering when shaping a tree, is the container in which it is kept. Applying minor bends to a tree in a pot is not too much of a problem as the root ball should stay undisrupted if wired in. But for heavy or serious bends the tree should be moved to a wooden box and wired down for stability. If one recalls the Scots pine image shown in part 1. one denotes that the container is a wooden box and the advantage of using a wooden box is that any supporting guy wires are easily attached, which is not really feasible if using a clay or plastic container.

Bending thicker branches requires a more careful approach due to the amount of tension being created to the outside radius. To create such a bend the following method usually suffices.

      1. wet raffia is tightly wrapped around the bending section making sure the area either side of it is also protected

      2. tape a length of heavy gauge wire to what will become the outer radius of the bend to protect the bark, cortex and phloem from splitting

      3. wrap the entire area in rubber tape

      4. select the correct gauge of wire and apply it to the proposed bending area

      5. carefully bend the limb or branch into position and use guy wire if necessary

Often when bending thick branches some practitioners resort to other methods when wire alone is insufficient to hold the desired shape. These include Heat – using a heat gun or gas burner to soften the cellular structure on the intended area. Splitting – cutting the branch in two halves and reducing the heart wood, these are then joined together and the bend is made. Channeling or grooving – cutting a groove or channel into the branch to remove the heart wood, thus resistance is reduced allowing the branch to be shaped. Such methods should only be carried out by professionals because such surgical practice requires much after care to maintain the tree’s health and eradicate potential disease.

Another simpler method when bending branches is the ‘V’ notching technique as shown below: Small angle cuts A, B & C an inverted ‘V’ are made in the branch into the heart wood but not beyond, these ‘V’s cuts are then closed as the branch is bent down using guy wires attached to the container preferably wooden.

V nothing technique
However, this practice does require some thought prior to undertaking because, any wounds not closed completely will have difficulty in healing, which can cause the disruption of nutrients and moisture not only to the wound, but to other areas moreover, wounds are susceptible to attack from disease. But some disagree, it is said that a conifer’s natural defence system will heal the wounds via it’s resin or sap and there is a logical argument here. Trees do have the ability to heal wounds and some species are more resilient than others nevertheless, it only takes one pathogen carrying insect or fungal spore to infest a wound.

How then do we protect such wounds? With the more intense methods mentioned above, cut pastes and various elastic and rubber tapes are available to facilitate repair. With ‘V’ notching the same can be used but most horticulturalists simply apply ‘vaseline’ (petroleum jelly) to the wounded area.

Wiring conifers

Generally speaking these are relatively slow growing often with rough bark and can be wired and left for a considerable length of time 3 to 5 years or more depending on the species and any wire marks are hardly visible. But there are conifers with smoother bark for example, common juniper, juniperus communis noble fir, Abies procera and larch Larix spp. Thus, it pays to be vigilant and check any wire applications periodically especially with young trees and those with smooth bark. Another important factor when wiring conifers is to avoid trapping the needles because not only is it unsightly it prohibits them from functioning properly.

Wiring deciduous

Deciduous varieties (although some have rough bark oak Quercus spp. willow Salix spp. and black poplar Populus nigra) most have relatively smooth bark and any wire applied if not checked will cause unsightly indentations that are difficult to eradicate, hence the specimen becomes useless as a bonsai due to its ugly appearance; so why does this happen to deciduous species and not so much to conifers?

A conifer being ‘evergreen’ slows down its activity in the colder months but still needs to transport moisture to the leaves (needles) for without it they would wither and die, thus a conifer does not become dormant in the true sense of the word and when spring arrives normal activity is resumed.

Deciduous in autumn shed their leaves, hence there is little need to pump quantities of moisture, thus the tree slows down and dormancy begins. In spring new activity commences with a growth surge referred to as ‘sap-rising’, as regeneration of new foliage and growth is the plant’s main focus. Therefore, deciduous trees should not be wired during ‘sap-rising’ and any wire applied the previous autumn must be removed.

When then can wiring begin?

The general consensus is that conifers can be wired after the growth surge from midsummer to early autumn as most new growth will have been made which may require wiring to retain potential shape. Any damage or slight mishaps made during this time will heal more quickly as the plant is getting ready for the coming colder period.

Deciduous species should be wired into shape during the late autumn when the tree has shed its leaves and the potential design is more visible as this period allows the branches to set. However, they can be wired during the summer months but, any wiring must be checked on a regular basis to avoid indentation.

Wiring saplings grown from seeds

Arguably for the novice one of the easiest plants to grow from seed as potential bonsai apart from Citrus spp. lemon, orange and lime is the pomegranate Punica granatum. Pomegranate seeds do not require stratification and can be sown straight from the fruit, providing any pulp residue has been removed to avoid the threat of fungal pathogens.

After 4 to 6 weeks they will sprout depending on cultivation conditions and after the cotyledon (embryonic leaves) have matured the plant produces pairs of leaves at intervals that are opposite, glossy, narrow and oblong and once large enough to handle, they can be transplanted into 14cm diameter pots, a size needed due to vigorous root growth.

Once the plant reaches 12 to 15cm in height the stem starts to lignify (become woody) at the base, but is still ‘green’ towards the top and it is at this stage the plant can be wired. For a tree of this size, you will need approximately a 40cm length of 1mm diameter aluminium wire. Thread wire the up from the base of the pot staying close to the stem and put a bend or tag in the wire on the pots underside to stop it from moving as shown below.

Gently wind the wire up the stem using loose wider coils, if the wire is too tight indentations will appear quite quickly (within 2 -3 weeks) and will have to be removed. As the diagram shows the wire protrudes higher than the plant’s apex, do not cut the wire because as the plant grows the extra length can be used for continued wiring as opposed to using a second piece of wire. Once the plant has attained the desired height and the shape has set, the top of the leading stem can be removed and the wire cut accordingly.
Wiring a sapling

Young pomegranate saplings are quite delicate in their first few months of growth, thus care must be taken when manipulating them. Hence it might be prudent to draw a quick sketch of the intended shape or design and then apply just one set of bends as opposed to continuously bending the plant. Wiring very young trees or shrubs can be considered as a useful addition to one’s learning curve, because it is a stepping stone to more mature trees, nevertheless one has to be careful with relatively ‘green’ material.

The image below depicts a pomegranate an example of what can be attained in a short space of time 3 years, with the basic shape achieved within the first year. Obviously the tree requires further work before it can become a potential bonsai. So until next time when we continue with ‘part B’, BW, N.




Wiring practices (part I)


Learned bonsai practitioners have their own approach to wiring and regardless of the implementation, it will conform to the ascetics of bonsai. But for the beginner wiring trees can be discerning due to the mistakes often made – errors that are difficult to rectify, thus questions continue to arise.

Arguably the best way to educate those new to the art is via actual wiring demonstrations, but this is not always possible especially if a bonsai workshop where one can attend is not in your area. Hence, they resort to online research to find the required information, which in many cases is not comprehensive in its entirety.

This web site (taigabonzai.com) does contain articles on this subject for example, (‘Styling, Wiring and Pruning’ posted March 20th 2016) and (‘The problems with bending or shaping’ posted January 2nd 2017). Nevertheless, those new to this ‘living art’ have yet to conduct adequate research to find the answers they are seeking. In truth, there is a wealth of information available in text form and in audio visual, it just takes time to read or view.

Arguably, part of the problem is that the beginner eager to get started fails to comprehend the needs of a particular specimen. This article (in three parts) will give a more in depth explanation on the problems when wiring, but first in order to know where we are going we have to know from whence we came; understanding basic horticulture and arboriculture.

Climate variation

The first factor we should consider are climate zones as these have great bearing on how plants react to changes in temperature for example, Northern Europe (Scandinavia). Here temperatures vary from −6°c to −30°c during December, January and February although in recent years they have risen to an average of −6°c to −15°c due to climate change. Summers can be from +10°c to +30°c thus, the range is quite extensive and all endemic flora are adaptable to these changes. This consensus would apply to countries found in the southern hemisphere; New Zealand and Argentina.

Europe (Oceanic) is milder due to the Gulf Steam’s influence making it milder and wetter in comparison to other areas of the same latitude around the world. Winters are milder and summers are cooler with temperatures ranging from 0ºc to +8°c and +22ºc to +24°c respectively and most flora can withstand the variation. But there are instances where extremes to weather patterns abound; the most damaging is sudden severe frost.

In the Mediterranean region (a temperate zone) generally speaking, temperatures average from 3ºc to 13ºc in the coldest months to 20ºc to 25ºc in the warmer months. But as stated the worlds climate is changing, thus the temperatures given for the 3 climate zones are only an approximation. Nonetheless, in the Mediterranean flora is not subjected to extreme variations hence, many species retain their foliage throughout the seasons.

Common species endemic to this region and used in bonsai include, Citrus sp. (Orange & Lemon), Punica granatum (Pomegranate), Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair tree) and varieties of Ficus. These species if kept in colder climes can be placed outside during the summer months (June, July & August) but, are returned to warm environments during the colder months.

However, it should be noted that these species can lose their foliage once returned to an indoor environment, the reason for this phenomenon is the change from an outdoor temperature fluctuation to one that is constant, but they do re-foliate in 2 to 3 weeks.

Researching your tree or shrub’s attributes and well being is important regardless if taken from the wild, store bought, cultivated from a cutting, grafted or from seed, it pays to gain the knowledge. Because this basic information is the learning curve for the further development of your potential specimen/s.

Tree species

The second factor is the type of tree coniferous or deciduous the former an ‘evergreen’ with permanent foliage and the latter a deciduous a broad flat leaf tree that sheds it’s leaves in autumn, hence the two distinct forms. But there are a few exceptions to this rule where a species can be both coniferous and deciduous for example, the larch and tamarack Larix spp. and the pond cypress Taxodium ascend which do have cones and needles but shed them each year and these are known as deciduous conifers.

Both coniferous and deciduous trees can be defined either as softwood or hardwood, softwoods (coniferous) cedar, cypress, juniper, larch, kauri, pine, spruce and yew have extreme flexibility and are predominantly used in construction. Whereas hardwood (deciduous) apple, beech, cumaru, hickory, maple, oak, teak and walnut have dense cellular structures hence they are less flexible. These hardwoods have many uses including furniture, axe handles, butcher’s blocks and decking for boats.

Conifers can be shaped relatively easily for example, a Scots pine Pinus sylvestris having a 3cm trunk can be gradually coxed into a desired position. However, the wiring used be they guy wires or that which is applied to the appropriate section must stay in place for some considerable time (3 years or more) to allow the tree to conform to its new shape as shown below.

wiring practices 1. pine

Deciduous can be problematic for example, a Japanese maple with a 1cm trunk will more than likely break because of it’s dense cellular structure, hence hardwood species are normally wired into some form of design in their first year of growth and as soon as the plant conforms to the new shape, which can happen in a short space of time (3 to 6 weeks) the wire is then removed.

The image below is the remains of a Japanese maple used for air-layering, what is left is a reduced stump 1cm diameter (white arrow) and a branch on the left (yellow arrow) which has been loosely wired to create movement and will become the new trunk. The gauge of wire is 2mm with the branch being the same in diameter, using a heavier gauge wire has 2 purposes, (a) it does not create indentations in the bark and (b) it can be left on for a longer period. The foliage bottom right is sacrificial but left to grow to allow the trunk to gain girth.

wiring practices 1. maple

In part 2 the discussion will continue with images and explanations on bending and shaping, the various methods used, how to pre-stress a branch or limb and when and how to wire. Until next time, B.W, N.