Introduction – ‘Bug apocalypse’ is a prelude to a 4 part series ‘Unseen enemies’, which looks at the increasing problem of invading pests and disease devastating agriculture, horticulture, natural woodlands and forests across the globe. These will be posted at a later date because, this article concerning the decline of our insect population looks at a problem that is now making headlines around the world.
The decline – Over the last few decades there has been an increasing decline in the insect population. Disappearing are many helpful predators including, Ladybugs Coccinellidae, Green Lacewings Chrysopidae, Honey Bees genus Apis, Praying Mantis family Mantidae, Spiders family Arachnida, Ground Beetles family Carabidae, Soldier Beetles family Cantharidae, Assassin Bugs family Reduviidae and Robber Flies. Asilidae
These insects are part of the food chain they eradicate unwanted pests including aphids, scale, mealy bugs and saw fly and in turn are the main resources for many birds, small mammals, fish, reptiles and other creatures. Moreover, they are an important key for human food production because, many crops depend on insects for pollination leading to fruit and seed production. Insects play a very important role in decomposing organic matter allowing nutrients to return to the soil and support the on coming crop season. Therefore, in terms of insect ecological importance, a sharp decline in their abundance is of great concern.
The arguments – Here are the points view from others whom are mindful of this issue. Will de Freitas asks if we are facing insect Armageddon he states that, “A recent study found that German nature reserves have seen a 75% reduction in flying insects over the last 27 years. The researchers involved made stark warnings that this indicated a wider collapse of the general insect population that would bring about an ecological catastrophe if left unchecked.”(article – October 25, 2017 – The Conversation)
Damian Carrington Environment editor for The Guardian in his article (10th February 2019) argues that “The world’s insects are hurtling down the path to extinction, threatening a catastrophic collapse of nature’s ecosystems.” “More than 40% of insect species are declining and a third are endangered, the analysis found. The rate of extinction is eight times faster than that of mammals, birds and reptiles; the total mass of insects is falling by a precipitous 2.5% a year, according to the best data available.”
In the February 2020 journal Biological Conservation no, 242 (a leading international body of scientists in the discipline of conservation science) Editor in chief Vincent Devictor of the Institut des Sciences de L’Evolution de Montpellier, France stated that. “We are causing insect extinctions by driving habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation, use of polluting and harmful substances, the spread of invasive species, global climate change, direct over exploitation and co-extinction of species dependent on other species.”
Devictor goes on to say that “With insect extinctions, we lose much more than species. We lose abundance and biomass of insects, diversity across space and time with consequent homogenization, large parts of the tree of life, unique ecological functions and traits and fundamental parts of extensive networks of biotic interactions. Such losses lead to the decline of key ecosystem services on which humanity depends.”
According to http://www.magnificentmeadows.org.uk “The UK’s remaining rich grasslands now cover a minute fraction of the area they once covered, even relatively recently in the early 20th Century. There were once natural wildflower meadows in every parish – today only 2% of the meadows that existed in the 1930’s remain. Nearly 7.5 million acres of wildflower meadow have been lost so far and they are still being destroyed.”
The blame game – These are but a few of the arguments from scientists and conservationists from the many we have researched and from these points of view it appears we have a major situation on our hands. There are many theories as to the decline in insect populations they include, habitat destruction by intensive farming and urbanisation, pesticide use, introduced species, climate change, eutrophication from fertilisers, pollution and artificial lighting; the latter used in huge polyethylene tunnels for intensive crop production.
Yet, despite the scientific evidence provided, globally our performance in instigating effective insect conservation is below par, we need to realise this fact and act accordingly. This would involve more inclusive education, better decisions with land managers and government officials in maintaining unique habitats, across the globe. To have more expansive sustainable agriculture and forestry, improved regulation and prevention of environmental risks and greater recognition of protected landscapes.
But the frailty and idiosyncrasy of human nature is what it is, the world’s heads of state congregate at summits and conferences to find ways to solve problems, each pointing the finger blaming the other for their misgivings when they themselves are equally responsible for the same actions. It is fickleness, bureaucratic hypocrisy by the asinine in an attempt to maintain ‘stability’, (economic, environmental and social or profits, planet, and people) a mind set proposed for the wealthy not the masses.
As the world’s population increases more land for housing, food production, highway construction and industrial complexes are required to support the increasing demand resulting in irreversible changes to the environment. Insects are a major component of the tapestry of life and failure to protect them will have dire consequences. It is now time for heads of state and their minions to refrain from ‘putting their heads in the sand’ and listen to the scientists to prevent a ‘Bug apocalypse.’ Until next time, BW, Nik.