Article 71 – ‘Design: a discussion’ Part 3

Hi, welcome to Taiga Bonzai in this article we discuss the complexities of design, it’s meaning and message what the designer or artist is attempting to impart with their perspective and to attempt to make sense of it all in a rational manner.

Introduction – in part 2 we stated that in bonsai there are no figurines, structures or independent rocks which is the correct interpretation of the guidelines of this art form nonetheless, rocks are used in bonsai if a tree is attached to them in some way or form. Styles describing trees planted on or over rock are referred to as Deshojo, but the relation between root and rock create different terminology for example. A tree with its roots wrapped around a rock where the rock is at the base of the trunk, with exposed roots descending into the soil, is called Sekijoju. A tree with its roots clinging to a rock is referred to as Ishizuke. (ishitsuki)

Sekijoju – ‘Root over rock’ – the rock is at the base of the trunk, with the roots exposed to varying degrees as they traverse the rock and then descend into the soil below. Ishizuke (ishitsuki) – ‘Root clinging to a rock’ – the roots of the tree grow in soil contained within the cracks and holes of the rock. The rock may serve as a simple container with the tree escaping the container and forming its own shape, or may show a closer relationship to the rock’s shape, growing close to the rock and following its contours. The images below illustrate the difference between the two styles.

Sekijoju – ‘Root over rock’ Ishizuke – ‘Root clinging to a rock’

Creating these styles can be time consuming especially with young plants because the root ball has insufficient length and therefore, cannot be trained in this fashion due to the lack of stability. One way to solve this problem is to plant the tree in a large deep container to allow the roots to develop in length, alternatively planting the tree in the ground for a few seasons is another option. Once the tree’s root system has grown to the desired length it can be pruned and attached to the proposed rock. Here is a link to a video on root over rock.

Neagari – exposed root – The roots of the tree are exposed as extensions of the trunk free from soil, these can extend as far as one-half to two-thirds the total tree height, the image below depicts a tree that has gone through this process. Every second growing season the plant was re-potted but was elevated each time by 1.5 cm exposing the root system that hardened off until the desired effect was achieved.

Sabamiki – split or hollow trunk – this style portrays the visual effect of a lightning strike or other severe and deep trunk damage, which has been weathered over time. It is applicable to deciduous species, conifers, and broadleaf evergreens. The hollowed trunk is usually chiseled out, making a hollow that can range in size from a shallow scar to nearly the full depth of the trunk.

Sabamiki Maple

Sharimiki – driftwood – this style portrays a tree with a significant part of its trunk bare of bark. In nature, trees in the sharimiki style are created by disease, physical damage to the trunk, weathering and age. At least one strip of live bark must connect the leaves and living branches to the root system to transport water and nutrients. The bared trunk areas give a strong impression of age regardless of the tree’s conformation, so driftwood bonsai often fall outside of the conventional styles in shape and foliage.

Sharimiki by Sage Ross

Thus far we have given a few examples on different designs and how effective in appearance they can be to the viewer, but much depends on personal perception and concept. Our next post article 72 focuses on a serious pest that is devastating the Mediterranean basin – a problem of serious concern, but we will return to the design discussion in article 73. Until next time, BW, Nik.