Article 53 – ‘Superglue, tape or beeswax?’

Introduction – Plants prone to the elements can suffer great damage with arguably storms, high winds and excessive snow build up being the worst offenders. Trees can be uprooted and/or have the branches break off and in the case of the Birch, (Betula pubescens) large amounts of snow accumulated at the crown can bend the trunk down into a permanent position, from where it cannot recover; the forests of Scandinavia have many trees that have been devastated in this way.

Bent birch (Betula pubescens) courtesy of dreamstime.com

However, such damage is not solely confined to the wild, domestic plants including fruit trees and bonsai are also prone to the onslaught, a severe wind can lift a bonsai out of it’s container if not wired in or send crashing to the floor. But much depends on the individual situation the weather patterns of the zone in which one resides and the amount of protection available. If damage is caused, how then do we repair it and with what?

Various methods – In the article ‘Wiring practices part II A’ February 12th 2019 one of the topics on severe bending and shaping included Heat – using a heat gun or gas burner to soften the cellular structure on the intended area. Splitting – cutting the branch in two halves and reducing the heart wood, these are then joined together and the bend is made. Channelling or grooving – cutting a groove or channel into the branch to remove the heart wood, thus resistance is reduced allowing the branch to be shaped.

Another simpler method when bending branches is the ‘V’ notching technique as shown below: Small angle cuts A, B & C an inverted ‘V’ are made in the branch into the heart wood but not beyond, these ‘V’ cuts are then closed as the branch is bent down using guy wires attached to the container preferably wooden. These surgical practices severely wound the plant hence, much after care is required in maintaining the tree’s health and eradicate potential disease caused by pathogens that are small, an ultramicroscopic with one dimension less than 200 µm. (the symbol µm is a metric unit of measure for length equal to 0.001 mm, or about 0.000039 inch)

‘V’ notching technique

Super glue – As we are aware surgical super glue (cyanoacrylate adhesive) is often used on people with cuts or lacerations as opposed to stitching depending on the severity of the wound, but could it be used to repair a tree? The tree and branches are predominantly round in shape with the xylem shown below consisting of two important cellular channels the sapwood (grey with pale blue dots) and the phloem (green with white dots) that transport nutrients to the leaves and sugars to the roots respectively.

If a branch is broken away from the trunk chances are it will be a clean break, hence it might be possible to super glue the branch and broken limb back in place, but take care not to let any glue touch the phloem as this can create a barrier restricting sugars from reaching the roots. In addition, although the bark will be dry, the cortex is moist so whether the repair will be successful remains to be seen. Moreover, to ensure that the repair holds an application of super glue around the damaged area needs to be applied as this will seal the joint and protect it from fugal attack.

Tape – Many horticulturists advocate the use of different types of tape including old bicycle inner tubes as it adds strength and stability to the damaged area and can be left in situ for long periods of time or until the wound has healed. Those who use Splitting, Channelling, Grooving and ‘V’ notching techniques also use tape, but the question is, has the wound been completely reassembled and sealed, It only takes the smallest of unprotected areas to allow an attack from pathogens.

Beeswax – (Cera alba) a natural wax produced by honey bees of the genus Apis and has many uses for example, In foods and beverages, as stiffening agents in cosmetics, a fragrance in soaps, perfumes and the protection of antique furniture. Beeswax can also be melted and used as a protective layer in preventing infections. Some fruit growers whose tree branches have been damaged by the elements, carefully attach the limb back in place and use melted beeswax to seal and secure the join.

Pros and Cons – The question here is which method is the best? – super glue (cyanoacrylate adhesive) does work, two years ago the first finger of my left hand was severely lacerated and was treated with this method and healed relatively quickly. Tape is strong and stable but can be fastidious and fussy especially where branches are broken next to a protruding limb moreover, any buds that are taped will not be able to break. Melted beeswax applied to the wounded area when solidified becomes a protective sealant allowing the repaired branch to function normally, it is also used to protect areas where grafting has taken place.

As to which method is best depends on where the break and it’s severity has occurred as both the phloem and sap wood need to be able to function pass the damaged area. However, as stated above branches regardless of their thickness or size are predominantly round and the phloem and sap wood are continuous in their circular positions within the xylem and are able to function even if damaged. Trees have the remarkable ability to heal themselves even if limbs are lost and some species are able to produce new growth from their roots. Arguably an experiment should be performed to substantiate this theory, which will happen in due course when a suitable candidate/s is found; until next time, BW, Nik.

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