The Sea Buckthorn (L. Hippophae rhamnoides) a compact deciduous shrub (2 to 4m high) is native to the colder climes of Northern Europe and Asia, it grows in poor soil mediums and can tolerate temperatures well below freezing. The bark is rough in texture grey brown to black with a greyish green canopy, leaves are alternate, narrow and lanceolate with silver undersides and pale green upper surfaces.
The Sea buckthorn has oval to roundish fruits ranging from pale yellow to dark orange, these contain high amounts of vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, flavonoids, health-beneficial fatty acids and high amounts of vitamin B12. In Scandinavia the benefits of consuming Sea buckthorn fruit has long been known as it probably has in other parts of the world however, cultivating this shrub although uncomplicated requires a little thought.
The shrub is ‘dioecious’ meaning that male and female flowers grow on individual trees and the sex of seedlings can only be determined at the first flowering, which normally occurs after three years of growth. The difference between the sexes is as follows; the male flowers have from four to six apetalous flowers, whilst the female has only one apetalous flower containing one ovary and one ovule. Fertilisation is created via wind pollination, hence both male and female plants should be in close proximity.
Sea buckthorn plants can be easily obtained as garden centres and nurseries have them in abundance, but they are saplings approximately 2 years old and ascertaining whether they are male or female is extremely difficult as they have yet to flower. Of course the containers in which the plants are housed have labels describing what they are, but it is highly unlikely to include the sex. One could ask the attendant as to the plant’s origin to determine whether it is male or female, they should have this information available if they are reputable traders, but more often than not they are unable to provide an answer. Hence purchasing Sea buckthorn plants is a bit of a lottery.
Sea buckthorn develops an extensive root system, the roots live in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Frankia bacteria, the roots also transform insoluble organic and mineral matters from the soil into more soluble states and vegetative reproduction of the plants occurs rapidly via root suckers for example. The bonsai version of the Sea buckthorn in the ‘literati’ (Bunjin gi) style shown below is 5 years old and has yet to produce apetalous flowers in order to determine its sex.
The main reason for this phenomenon is partly due to heavy pruning it has received. However, in late spring of 2020 vegetative reproduction rapidly appeared with several new plants protruding up through the soil medium and in July of that year the plant was taken out of its pot and all the new shoots were carefully removed and replanted in the yellow container and left to fend for themselves.
Winter of 2020 was quite hard with plenty of snow constantly thawing and freezing with more snow build up. In previous winters all bonsai were covered with hessian for added protection, but last year they were left uncovered, hence they were subjected to a hard time. In March 2021 the soil medium in the yellow pot was a block of ice and the chance of survival for these yearling plants seemed minimal. It is now April, the soil medium has thawed out and the young plants have survived; to say the Sea buckthorn is ‘resilient’ is very apt considering the hardships it must endure.
The next question is, what will happen to these young sea buckthorn plants as they are surplus to requirements? One will be kept as a backup should some catastrophe befall the ‘literati’ bonsai, the remainder will be given away. You might ask the question of why not take them into the wild and replant them, sadly the answer is no, because (a) there is no permission to do so, (b) soil pH would be incompatible to the plant’s needs and (c) they would be subjected to the onslaught of human and animal activity; until next time BW, Nik.